Lange, R. (2011). Hurihanganui, T. A. New Zealand Ministry of Health (2020b). While an analysis of these models is outside the scope of this article, we suggest that these understandings of hauora which center on holistic and collective well-being are essential parts of both why and how Māori responded to Covid-19. Because of this way of remembering past events, Māori were accurately aware of the impact previous pandemics and introduced diseases had on our communities and the potential impact Covid-19 could have. Press release by Te Runanga Whakawhanuga i nga hahi o Aotearoa president Pio Jacobs regarding suggestions that call for Maori not to vote failed and the support to sign the Tino Rangatiratanga Register. Available at: https://www.health.govt.nz/publication/he-korowai-oranga-maori-health-strategy (Accessed November 10, 2020). It uses black, white, and red as national colours of New Zealand. The term itself is rooted in a Māori worldview, and there is no one English term which fully encapsulates its meaning. As case numbers continued to remain stable and community transmission was ruled out, New Zealand moved down alert levels (New Zealand Ministry of Health, 2020). Publ. Māori critic and conscience in a colonising context. Decolonizing methodologies: research and indigenous peoples. Corntassel, J. ProtectOurWhakapapa (2020). Te hauora Māori i mua – history of Māori health - health devastated, 1769 to 1901', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. 6. Ko te Kuini o Ingarani ka wakarite ka wakaae ki nga Rangatira ki nga hapu - ki nga tangata katoa o Nu Tirani te tino rangatiratanga o o ratou wenua o ratou kainga me o ratou taonga katoa. While this right to have control over well-being is a central part of tino rangatiratanga, there remain significant challenges around the New Zealand government's willingness to fully accept Māori tino rangatiratanga which is often seen as a threat to governments. As the Covid-19 threat became ever more present in Aotearoa, a number of iwi took it upon themselves to protect local communities by establishing monitored entry and exits from their communities. 2.3 The explanation links ahikā and ahimātaotao to issues for Māori in a modern Tino rangatiratanga refers to determination by Māori of issues that impact on Māori. Priority was given to vulnerable members of the community, such as the elderly, low-income earners, as well as those who live rurally, or had pre-existing health conditions. As a result, tino rangatiratanga can be viewed as both a marker of, as well as an important contributor to well-being. Available at: https://covid19.govt.nz/alert-system/about-the-alert-system/ (Accessed November 12, 2020). #ProtectOurWhakapapa (2020). #Protectourwhakapapa Communication Strategy. Adm. 50 (6–7), 598–605. Tino rangatiratanga has been translated to mean self-determination, autonomy, full authority, chiefly authority, authority of the people, sovereignty, and chiefly sovereignty by different people at different times'. The term “rangatira” makes up the term, and is the Māori word for leader, again this English term does little to inform about the worldview through which Māori leadership is understood. The foundation of the Covid-19 response was built upon this important well-being practice. Not only did the Māori response likely contribute to the overall New Zealand economic and health success for all New Zealanders but it also provides an example of a more holistic health response - one that not only the New Zealand government but other governments around the world could learn from. Nat. Iwi checkpoints were perhaps the most well-known action undertaken by iwi throughout the country. The juxtaposition of Māori words with English concepts. Available at: https://www.facebook.com/hapaitehauora (Accessed November 4, 2020). J. Polit. (2020). In this model, each of these four dimensions of hauora influences and supports the others and are necessary for strength, symmetry and balance. Available at: http://whaaingawahine.blogspot.com/2010/12/maori-critic-and-conscience-in.html (Accessed November 10, 2020). Auckland, New Zealand: Oxford University Press, 68–74. From the first European contact to 1840, Māori lost an estimated 30% of our entire population, mostly to epidemics (Lange, 2011). While the New Zealand Government had announced that Education providers and children could return to schools, Te Kōhanga Reo National Trust made an independent decision for children to remain at home. Tino rangatiratanga refers to Māori control over Māori lives, and the centrality of mātauranga Māori (Māori knowledge). What I think we require, is a system in this country which allows us, or gives us more flexibility to do things in a way in which we know work for our people” (2020). Government’s Māori Covid-19 response all words, no action—response group. Tino rangatiratanga The second article of the treaty confirms that although ‘kāwanatanga’ of their country will be transferred to the British Crown, Māori retain ‘te tino Rangatiratanga’ of their people, land and all other possessions. While these models do vary in how they conceptualise well-being, they all highlight that Māori understandings of well-being must be understood in a holistic, collective manner and one that includes supporting collective ties. Policy Quarterly, 16 (3), 36–41. McMeeking, S., and Savage, C. (2020). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. (Accessed November 11, 2020). Since the reduction in alert levels, there has been a small swell in cases, but most are traced and controlled, with social distancing measures in place across the country. MAI Journal, 3 (1), 18–32. 6:613340. doi: 10.3389/fsoc.2021.613340. Māori responses to Covid-19. ", The Ministry of Culture and Heritage published guidelines describing the appropriate way to fly the Māori flag in relation to the New Zealand flag.[20]. In lieu of face to face interactions, online tools enabled Māori to maintain whanaungatanga through the promotion of specifically Māori material. As adaptable and flexible values, tikanga have effectively informed key Māori responses to the Covid-19 pandemic. This is deliberate “We keep our ancestors close, their memories live on with us, and their lives become our lessons” (Ngata, 2020, p.1). Williams, C., and Biddle, D. (2020). The emphasis on tino rangatiratanga draws from an inconsistency arising between Article 1 and Article 2 of the Treaty of Waitangi: Based on the Māori text alone, in Article 1, the signatories appear to be granting kawanatanga (governorship), and in Article 2, the signatories are promised that their tino rangatiratanga (absolutely sovereignty or highest chieftainship) would remain undisturbed. One example is when parliament enacted the Electoral (Disqualification of Sentenced Prisoners) Amendment Act 2010, which banned those detained pursuant to a sentence of imprisonment from voting. Forty years of Māori protest. CC and ATO both made an equal contribution to preparing and writing this manuscript. In analysing the Māori response to Covid-19 it is clear that Māori communities reacted with innovative, decisive, and robust decision making, that enacted tino rangatiratanga which was driven in part by tikanga Māori. Figure 1. New Zealand Government (2020). Covid 19 coronavirus: iwi delivers 8000 food packs to vulnerable whānau. Te Whaainga Wahine. While focused on a Māori worldview, tino rangatiratanga also has a close association with the challenges that have come from the loss of Māori control through colonial practices, and has been used as a framework from which Māori have continued to challenge governments for recognition of our individual and collective self-determination. Other iwi such as Tūhoe also confirmed through media interviews that their decision to control movement in and out of their community was based on their position as kaitiaki and the obligations and responsibilities they had to protect local communities; “Our role as kaitiaki in this case means keeping people safe and ensuring this closure is respected.” (Kruger cited in Williams and Biddle, 2020). https://www.facebook.com/Asians4Tino/posts/3688315647955530 Whanaungatanga requires purposeful efforts to seek out and create lasting relationships as a mechanism to support individuals and establish collective ties. Tino rangatiratanga can mean self-determination, sovereignty, independence, autonomy. This article discusses some of the actions that Māori the Indigenous peoples in Aotearoa New Zealand have taken to protect their communities, while also maintaining and promoting tino rangatiratanga (self-determination). In other words, each is necessary for the other, and that the health of our communities is dependent on the health of our tino rangatiratanga. In essence, Māori must protect the land in return for living off the land (Mead, 2016). These are clear examples of how iwi understand their tino rangatiratanga and that an essential part of maintaining tino rangatiratanga is to protect and promote the well-being of local communities. In other words, despite the impacts of colonisation, Māori communities have maintained and built strong levels of tino rangatiratanga, to both protect and enable tino rangatiratanga to thrive. 'Hauora, Well-being' as philosophy. Indigenous communities from around the world have had to make significant adaptations to cultural practices in order to protect the health and well-being of their communities. For Māori relationships between people are required in order for society to operate (Smith, 2013; Mead, 2016). Wellington, New Zealand: Waitangi Tribunal. Tino rangatiratanga is a Māori language term that is often translated as "absolute sovereignty". Rangatiratanga, for example, would be represented by a known person. While significant struggles still exist for Māori, we have continued to reaffirm our tino rangatiratanga in diverse ways, which have helped us to respond proactively to Covid-19. violations and alienations against the peoples of Taranaki. Whānau Ora commissioning agencies were recognised as key to increasing outreach to Māori communities and ensuring equitable and holistic care. (noun) self-determination, sovereignty, autonomy, self-government, domination, rule, control, power. Sociol. In addition to these dimensions of hauora outlined by Durie, in Rangimārie Rose Pere's (1991) model of well-being - Te Wheke - Pere also identifies Mauri (life force in people and objects), Mana ake (the unique identity of individuals and family), Hā a koro ma, a kui ma (the breath of life from forbearers), and Whatumanawa (the open and healthy expression of emotion), as important contributors to whānau health. Though it is not my personal interpretation, an example would include tino Rangatiratanga as sovereignty: The Waitangi Tribunal has found that 'on the colonisation of inhabited countries, sovereignty, in the sense of absolute power, cannot be vested in only one of the parties'. It is clear that there are parallels across the indigenous community lead responses, who showed strong leadership and a value- driven response to Covid-19. This refers to the number of kaumātua that work in kōhanga reo. In these cases, Māori values and holistic well-being was the key motivation, as Māori responded to the physical, mental, emotional, social, spiritual and economic challenges of Covid-19, in a culturally appropriate manner. The official recognition of the Tino Rangatiratanga flag resulted from a campaign by indigenous rights advocacy group Te Ata Tino Toa. As the number of cases started to increase the strategy of the New Zealand government was to go hard, and go early (Jamieson, 2020). Jackson, A.-M., Baxter, J., and Hakopa, H. (2018). he says that, “Rangatiratanga is said to be the quality of being a chief. Cram, F. (2014). A Māori worldview of health is holistic in nature and extends far beyond a biomedical model of health which focuses on purely biological factors and excludes psychological, environmental, and social influence (Durie, 1998). Whaiora: Māori health development. However, whatever the structure that Māori leadership takes, it must be resourced sufficiently and given full control over how resources are used. The Covid response in New Zealand, both by the New Zealand Government and Māori, has highlighted the need for systemic change in health. This is not a finite list of tikanga by any means, nor a full explanation of the tikanga that have underpinned Māori responses to Covid-19. EcoHealth 4 (4), 445–460. New Zealand Ministry of Health (2002). Karakia and even more so tangihanga processes are not common online and indeed in many ways center on face to face interaction. Bargh, M. (2013). Again this shows the adaptive capacity of our tikanga, when we understand the underlying mātauranga and values guiding our tikanga practices - and this in and of itself demonstrates how tino rangatiratanga and well-being are linked. 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